Lecap Personal Statement

By Paul Clammer

On my first trip to Haiti, I was, like many people, shamefully ignorant of its history. I had heard of Toussaint Louverture but little of what he did, though I knew enough to realize that packing a copy of CLR James’ The Black Jacobins might be a good idea. It transformed my experience of the country. On repeated visits – most recently working on the new edition of my travel guidebook  to Haiti – I’ve always been struck by how the Haitian Revolution continues to inform the discourse of the present, and how the traces of the revolutionary past are still so clearly embedded in the landscape. This photo journal provides an introduction to some of the revolution’s key moments and locations that are accessible to visitors today.

1. Cap Français – Place d’Armes

On the eve of the Haitian Revolution, Cap Français (or Le Cap, modern-day Cap-Haïtien) was the largest town in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. It had apopulation of around 15,000, of whom two-thirds were slaves and a tenth free people of colour. Le Cap was destroyed by fire twice during the revolution and leveled by an earthquake in 1842, but its original colonial street-plan still carries echoes of its history. The Place d’Armes was the site of many key revolutionary moments, not least the proclamation of general emancipation announced here in 1793. This presaged abolition across the French empire. A modest monument opposite the church commemorates the 1758 execution of the slave rebel Mackandal, as well the 1791 executions of Vincent Ogé and Jean-Baptiste Chavannes, who had fought for the rights of free people of color. The great chronicler of Saint-Domingue, Moreau de Saint-Méry, wrote that when the church’s bell rang, the blacks would cry, ‘A good white is dead, but the wicked ones remain.’[1]

2. Habitation Duplaa

In 1791, there were more than 260 sugar plantations in the north of Saint-Domingue and the ruins of many are still scattered in the landscape, such as here at Habitation Duplaa in Quartier Morin. This plantation survived the revolution largely unscathed; after independence, it was owned by the wife of revolutionary leader Henry Christophe, and later by President Boyer, when it was largely abandoned. Today, it is an active Vodou site, with the lwa (Vodou spirit) Lovana in residence. 

Despite this appropriation, the reminders of slavery remain. At the remains of nearby Habitation Dutreille, near the tall chimney for the sugar-boiling works, the gateposts still display the original owner’s motto: Le travail est mon bonheur.

3. Boïs Caïman

This spot at Boïs Caïman marks the Haitian Revolution’s founding event. At this wooded spot on August 14, 1791, a gathering of slaves overseen by the Vodou priests,Boukman Dutty and Cécile Fatiman, pledged themselves to coordinate a revolt against their masters. “The god of the white man calls him to commit crimes,” Boukman announced, “Our god asks only good works of us.”[2] A week later, the skies across the north turned red and black from the burning sugar plantations.

The quasi-mythical nature of the ceremony has led to several places claiming to be the “real” Boïs Caïman. This site, on the old Le Normand de Mézy plantation, is the likeliest location. The thickly wooded hills above are dotted with caves – hideouts for slaves before and during the revolution – including one painted red and blue to dedicate it to the lwa Ogue Feray, the martial spirit said to have inspired many revolutionaries.

4. Breda bridge

This colonial-era bridge outside Cap-Haïtien crosses the river at Haut du Cap towards the Breda plantation, the birthplace of Toussaint Louverture. Although born a slave,by the outbreak out the revolution, Toussaint had been free for 15 years, and had owned slaves as a landowner himself. While the initial stages of the revolution were led by ex-slaves Jean-François and Biassou, by August 1793, he was its main leader. On the day that slavery was abolished in the north of the colony, he announced his claim to colonists “I am Toussaint Louverture. My name is perhaps known to you; I have undertaken vengeance. I want Liberty and Equality to reign in Saint-Domingue,” [3]

5. Môle Saint-Nicholas

The slave revolt in Saint-Domingue quickly took on an international dimension. Toussaint took aid from the Spanish across the border, while British prime ministerWilliam Pitt sent troops to try to claim the colony from the French. The British army occupied swathes of Saint-Domingue for five years from 1793 onward, including Port-au-Prince, Jérémie in the south, and the strategic port town of Môle Saint-Nicholas, pictured here. In 1798, Toussaint – then allied with revolutionary France – signed a secret treaty with the British, allowing their troops to evacuate and ending the British blockade of the colony.

6. Burning of Le Cap

After Toussaint became governor-for-life in 1801, the French sent a new expedition, led by Napoleon’s brother-in-law General Charles Leclerc, to return Saint-Domingueunder French control. When his forces arrived in Le Cap in February 1802, the revolutionary commander there, Henry Christophe, burned the city to the ground rather than allow him to disembark. This act of defiance is remembered in this plaque at the foot of Christophe’s statue on the Champs de Mars in Port-au-Prince, one of a series erected in 1954 to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Haitian independence.

7. Crête-à-Piérrot

One of the key battles of the Haitian Revolution was the siege of Crête-à-Piérrot in March 1802. The French surrounded the forces of Jean-Jacques Dessalines at this fort in the Artibonite Valley for a three-week siege. Its low walls belie its secure hilltop position – desperate assaults and trench fighting resulted in 1500 French dead. It was here that, according to a white prisoner held at the fort, Dessalines first promised histroops that their struggle would lead to full independence. The defenders eventually ran out of food and water, but still managed to fight their way out and rejoin the rebel armies in the mountains. For the French, the final capture of the now-useless fort was the definition of a pyrrhic victory.

8. Vertières

The last great fight of the Haitian Revolution took place at Vertières, just outside Le Cap. Dessalines – now commander of the self-styled Indigenous Army – amassed his forces to take on the remaining French forces, commanded by General Rochambeau (Leclerc having earlier died of yellow fever). The hero of the battle was Capoix-la-Mort, who led repeated assaults on the French, despite having his horse shot fromunder him. When the smoke cleared, Rochambeau sued for peace and was granted ten days to evacuate all remaining troops from the island. This monument, by the Cuban sculptor Juan José Sicré, was erected to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the battle, which was accompanied by a full-scale recreation of the fight by the Haitian army. November 18, the date of the battle, remains a national holiday in Haiti.

9. Fort Liberté

After the last French had left the island, Dessalines along with Christophe and General Clerveaux travelled to Fort Dauphin (now Fort Liberté), near the border with Santo Domingo. In front of the French cathedral in the town square (pictured), they announced that “the independence of Saint-Domingue is proclaimed.” Their new country was still in want of a name, but this preliminary statement of independence quickly appeared in translation in newspapers in the USA and England.

10. Gonaïves

Dessalines made his definitive statement of independence for the newly christened state of Haiti in the square of Gonaïves on January 1, 1804. His secretary Boisrond Tonnerre joked that to do true justice to their monumental struggle, the declaration of independence would require “the skin of a white to serve as a parchment, his skull as an inkwell, his blood for ink, and a bayonet for a pen.”[4] The modern monument shows Dessalines at the prow of a slave ship; on its sides, bronze reliefs show its human cargo transformed by their struggle to stand proudly, ready to defend the world’s first black republic. 

11. Pont Rouge

The discontents of revolution continued to be felt after independence. The once-enslaved wanted to be free to cultivate their own land, but governor-general, Toussaint had forced them back to the plantations to rebuild the shattered economy. Dessalines carried on this policy of militarized agriculture and unsuccessfully tried to woo the British into a trade treaty. He crowned himself emperor in late 1804. Two years later, a conspiracy of leading generals, including Alexandre Pétion (and with the likely approval of Henry Christophe), led the assassination of Dessalines at Pont Rouge on the edge of Port-au-Prince. This monument on the site of his death was unveiled on October 17, 2015, the 209th anniversary of his murder. 

12. Citadelle Henry

Newly independent Haiti feared the return of the French army, and to this end Dessalines ordered a series of forts to be built in the mountainous interior. At the first sight of an invasion flotilla, the port cities were to be burned and the forts serve as bases for guerilla war. The grandest of these was built by Christophe on the summit of Pic la Ferrière near Milot, a cutting edge piece of military architecture whose construction continued after Christophe named himself ruler of the north (and eventually king) following Dessalines’ death. The Citadelle Henry is the largest fortress in the Americas and (together with Christophe’s ruined palace of Sans Souci) Haiti’s only UNESCO World Heritage site, as well as a powerful testament tothe country’s long struggle for independence.

Author bio:

Paul Clammer is a writer and guidebook author specializing in Haiti. He is currently researching a biography of Henry Christophe. You can reach at him @paulclammer.

Title image: Mural of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Lycée Jean-Jacques Dessalines on Avenue Christophe in Port-au-Prince.

[1] Méderic-Louis-Élie Moreau de St. Méry, Description topographique, physique, civile, politique et historique de la partie française de l’isle Saint-Domingue (Paris, 1797) Vol 1, p342. 

[2] Carolyn Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint-Domingue Revolution from Below (Knoxville, 1990), p93

[3] Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Cambridge, 2004), p176.

[4] David Geggus, Haitian Revolutionary Studies (Bloomington, 2002), p208.

Further Reading:

Jacques de Cauna, ‘Vestiges of the Built Landscape of Pre-revolutionary Saint-Domingue’ in The World of the Haitian Revolution, edited by David Patrick Geggus & Norman Fiering. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009, 21-48.

Paul Clammer, Haiti: The Bradt Travel Guide. Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides, 2012.

Like this:

LikeLoading...

Related

Cap-Haïtien (Haitian Creole: Kap Ayisyen; English: Cape Haitian) often referred to as Le Cap or Au Cap, is a commune of about 190,000 people on the north coast of Haiti and capital of the department of Nord. Previously named, Cap‑Français (initially Cap-François)[4] and Cap‑Henri, it was historically nicknamed, The Paris of the Antilles, because of its wealth and sophistication, expressed through its beautiful architecture and artistic life.[5][6][7][8] It was an important city during the colonial period, serving as the capital of the French Colony of Saint-Domingue from the city's formal foundation in 1711 until 1770 when the capital was moved to Port-au-Prince. After the Haitian Revolution, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Northern Haiti under King Henri Christophe until 1820.

Cap-Haïtien's long history of independent thought was formed in part by its relative distance from Port-au-Prince, the barrier of mountains between it and the southern part of the country, and a history of large African populations. These contributed to making it a legendary incubator of independent movements since slavery times. For instance, from February 5–29, 2004, the city was taken over by militants who opposed the rule of the Haïtian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. They eventually created enough political pressure to force him out of office and the country.

Cap-Haïtien is near the historic Haitian town of Milot, which lies 12 miles (19 km) to the southwest along a gravel road. Milot was Haiti's first capital under the self-proclaimed King Henri Christophe, who ascended to power in 1807, three years after Haiti had gained independence from France. He renamed Cap‑Français as Cap‑Henri. Milot is the site of his Sans-Souci Palace, wrecked by the 1842 earthquake. The Citadelle Laferrière, a massive stone fortress bristling with cannons, atop a nearby mountain is 5 miles (8.0 km) away. On clear days, its silhouette is visible from Cap‑Haïtien.

The small Hugo Chavez International Airport (formerly Cap-Haïtien International Airport)[citation needed], located on the southeast edge of the city, is served by several small domestic airlines. it has been patrolled by ChileanUN troops from the "O'Higgins Base" since the 2010 earthquake. The airport is currently being expanded. Several hundred UN personnel, including nearby units from Nepal and Uruguay, are assigned to the city as part of the ongoing United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).

History and character[edit]

The island was occupied for thousands of years by cultures of indigenous peoples, who had migrated from present-day Central and South America. In the 16th century, Spanish explorers in the Caribbean began to colonize the island. They adopted the native name, Guárico for this area that is today known as "Cap‑Haïtien".[9] Due to the chance introduction of new infectious diseases, as well as poor treatment of the indigenous peoples, their population rapidly declined.

On the nearby coast Columbus founded his first community in the New World, the short-lived La Navidad. In 1975, researchers found near Cap‑Haïtien another of the first Spanish towns of Hispaniola: Puerto Real was founded in 1503. It was abandoned in 1578, and its ruins were not discovered until late in the twentieth century.[10]

The French took over half of the island of Hispaniola from the Spanish in the early eighteenth century. They established large sugar caneplantations on the northern plains and imported tens of thousands of African slaves to work them. Cap‑Français became an important port city of the French colonial period and the colony's main commercial centre.[5] It served as the capital of the French colony of Saint-Domingue from its founding in 1711 until 1770, when the capital was moved to Port-au-Prince in the southwest part of the island. After the slave revolution, this was the first capital of the Kingdom of Northern Haiti under King Henri Christophe, when the nation was split apart.

The central area of the city is between the Bay of Cap‑Haïtien to the east and nearby mountainsides to the west; these are increasingly dominated by flimsy urban slums. The streets are generally narrow and arranged in grids. As a legacy of the United States' occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934, Cap‑Haïtien's north-south streets were renamed as single letters (beginning with Rue A, a major avenue) and going to "Q", and its east-west streets with numbers from 1 to 26; the system is not followed outside the central city, where French names predominate. The historic city has numerous markets, churches, and low-rise apartment buildings (of three–four storeys), constructed primarily before and during the U.S. occupation. Much of the infrastructure in need of repair. Many such buildings have balconies on the upper floors, which overlook the narrow streets below. With people eating outside on the balconies, there is an intimate communal atmosphere during dinner hours.

  • The French army led by Le Clerc lands in Cap Français (1802)

  • American Marines in 1915 defending the entrance gate in Cap-Haïten

  • Marine's base at Cap-Haïtien

Economy[edit]

Cap-Haïtien is known as the nation's largest center of historic monuments; it is a tourist destination. The calm water of the bay, picturesque Caribbean beaches and monuments have made it a resort and vacation destination for Haiti's upper classes, comparable to Pétion-Ville. Cap‑Haïtien has also attracted more international tourists, as it has been isolated from the political instability in the south of the island.

It has a wealth of French colonial architecture, which has been well preserved. During and after the Haitian Revolution, many craftsmen from Cap‑Haïtien, who were free people of color, fled to French-controlled New Orleans as they were under attack by the mostly African slaves. As a result, the two cities share many similarities in styles of architecture. Especially notable are the gingerbread houses lining the city's older streets.

Tourism[edit]

Labadie and other beaches[edit]

The walled Labadie (or Labadee) beach resort compound is located 6 miles (9.7 km) to the city's northwest. It serves as a brief stopover for Royal Caribbean International (RCI) cruise ships. Major RCI cruise ships, dock weekly at Labadie. It is a private resort leased by RCI, which has generated the largest proportion of tourist revenue to Haiti since 1986. It employs 300 locals, allows another 200 to sell their wares on the premises, and pays the Haitian government US$6 per tourist.

The resort is connected to Cap‑Haïtien by a mountainous, recently paved road. RCI has built a pier at Labadie, completed in late 2009, capable of servicing the luxury-class large ships.[11] Attractions include a Haitian market, numerous beaches, watersports, a water-oriented playground, and a popular zip-line.[12] People not on cruises can visit the beach, too.

Cormier Plage is another beach on the way to Labadie, and there are also water taxis from Labadie to other beaches, like Paradis beach. In addition, Belli Beach is a small sandy cove with boats and hotels. Labadie village could be visited from here.[13]

Vertières[edit]

Vertières is the site of the Battle of Vertières, the last and defining battle of the Haitian Revolution. On November 18, 1803, the Haitian army led by Jean-Jacques Dessalines defeated a French colonial army led by the Comte de Rochambeau. The French withdrew their remaining 7,000 troops (many had died from yellow fever and other diseases), and in 1804, Dessalines' revolutionary government declared the independence of Haiti. The revolution had been underway, with some pauses, since the 1790s.

In this last battle for independence, rebel leader Capois La Mort survived all the French bullets that nearly killed him. His horse was killed under him, and his hat fell off, but he kept advancing on the French, yelling, "En avant!" (Go forward!) to his men. He has become renowned as a hero of the revolution. The 18 of November has been widely celebrated since then as a Day of Army and Victory in Haiti.

Citadelle Laferrière and Sans-Souci Palace[edit]

The Citadelle Laferrière, also known as Citadelle Henri Christophe, or the Citadelle, is a large mountaintop fortress located approximately 17 miles (27 km) south of the city of Cap‑Haïtien and 5 miles (8.0 km) beyond the town of Milot. It is the largest fortress in the Americas, and was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1982 along with the nearby Sans-Souci Palace. The Citadel was built by Henri Christophe, a leader during the Haitian slave rebellion and self-declared King of Northern Haiti, after the country gained its independence from France in 1804. Together with the remains of his Sans-Souci Palace, damaged in the 1842 earthquake, Citadelle Laferrière has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[14]

Bois Caïman[edit]

Further information: Bois Caïman

Bois Caïman (Haitian Creole: Bwa Kayiman), 1.9 miles (3 km) south of road RN 1, is the place where Vodou rites were performed under a tree at the beginning of the slave revolution. For decades, maroons had been terrorizing slaveholders on the northern plains by poisoning their food and water. Makandal is the legendary (and perhaps historical) figure associated with the growing resistance movement. By the 1750s, he had organized the maroons, as well as many people enslaved on plantations, into a secret army. Makandal was murdered (or disappeared) in 1758, but the resistance movement grew.

At Bois Caïman, a maroon leader named Dutty Boukman held the first mass antislavery meeting secretly on August 14, 1791. At this meeting, a Vodou ceremony was performed, and all those present swore to die rather than to endure the continuation of slavery on the island. Following the ritual led by Boukman and a mambo named Cécile Fatiman, the insurrection started on the night of August 22–23, 1791. Boukman was killed in an ambush soon after the revolution began. Jean-François was the next leader to follow Dutty Boukman in the uprising of the slaves, the Haitian equivalent of the storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution. Slaves burned the plantations and cane fields, and massacred French colonists across the northern plains. They also attacked Cap Francais and some of the free people of color. Eventually the revolution gained the independence of Haiti from France and freedom for the slaves. The site of Dutty Boukman's ceremony is marked by a ficus tree. Adjoining it is a colonial well, which is credited with mystic powers.

Morne Rouge[edit]

Morne Rouge is 5.0 miles (8 km) to the south of Cap. It is the site of the sugar plantation known as "Habitation Le Normand de Mezy", known for several slaves who led the rebellion against the French.[15]

Natural disasters[edit]

1842 Cap-Haïtien earthquake[edit]

Main article: 1842 Cap-Haïtien earthquake

On 7 May 1842, an earthquake destroyed most of the city and other towns in the north of Haiti and the neighboring Dominican Republic. Among the buildings destroyed or significantly damaged was the Sans-Souci Palace. Ten thousand people died in the earthquake.[16] Its magnitude is estimated as 8.1 on the Richter scale.[17]

2010 Haiti earthquake[edit]

In the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, which destroyed port facilities in Port-au-Prince, the Port international du Cap-Haïtien was used to deliver relief supplies by ship.[18]

As the city's infrastructure was little damaged, numerous businessmen and many residents have moved here from Port-au-Prince. The airport is patrolled by ChileanUN troops since the 2010 earthquake, and several hundred UN personnel have been assigned to the city as part of the ongoing United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). They are working on recovery throughout the island.

After the earthquake, the port of Labadee was demolished and the pier enlarged and completely re-paved with concrete, which now allows larger cruise ships to dock, rather than tendering passengers to shore.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Cap-Haïtien is served by the Hugo Chávez International Airport, Haiti's second busiest airport.[19] It is a hub for Salsa d'Haiti. American Airlines has recently started international flights into the enlarged airport.

Seaport[edit]

The Port international du Cap-Haïtien is Cap-Haïtien's main seaport.

Roads[edit]

The Route Nationale#1 connects Cap-Haïtien with the Haitian capital city Port-au-Prince via the cities of Saint-Marc and Gonaïves. The Route Nationale#3 also connects Cap-Haïtien with Port-au-Prince via the Central Plateau and the cities of Mirebalais and Hinche. Cap-Haïtien has one of the best grid systems in Haiti with its north-south streets were renamed as single letters (beginning with Rue A, a major avenue), and its east-west streets with numbers. The Boulevard du Cap-Haitian (also called the Boulevard Carenage) is Cap‑Haïtien's main boulevard that runs along the Atlantic Ocean in the northern part of the city.

Public transportation[edit]

Cap-Haïtien is served by tap tap and local taxis or motorcycles.

Health[edit]

Cap Haitien is served the teaching hospital: Hôpital Universitaire Justinien.

Education[edit]

A union of four Catholic Church private schools have been present for two decades in Cap‑Haïtien. They have higher-level grades, equivalent to the lycées that feed the Écoles Normale Supérieure in France. They have high standards of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and generally their students come from the social and economic elite. Also, the lyceé Philippe Guerrier that was built in 1844 by the Haitian President, Philippe Guerrier, has been a fountain of knowledge for more than a century.

  • Collège Notre-Dame du Perpetuel Secours des Pères de Sainte-Croix
  • Collège Regina Assumpta des Sœurs de Sainte-Croix
  • École des Frères de l'instruction Chrétienne
  • École Saint Joseph de Cluny des Sœurs Anne-Marie Javoue
  • Lyceé Philippe Guerrier built by the Haitian President, Philippe Guerrier in 1844.

Universities[edit]

Cap Haitien is home to the Cap-Haitien Faculty of Law, Economics and, Management; the Public University of the North in Cap Haitien (UPNCH). The new Universite Roi Henri Christophe is nearby in Limonade.

Sport[edit]

Cap Haitien has the Parc Saint-Victor home of three major league teams: Football Inter Club Association, AS Capoise, and Real du Cap.

Communal Sections[edit]

The commune consists of three communal sections, namely:

  • Bande du Nord, urban (part of the commune of Cap-Haïtien) and rural
  • Haut du Cap, urban (part of the commune of Cap-Haïtien) and rural
  • Petit Anse, urban (commune of Petit Anse) and rural

Notable natives[edit]

  • Etienne Chavannes, painter
  • Tyrone Edmond, Haitian-born model.
  • Fred Joseph Jr, Haitian-born philanthropist. Founder and president of Help Us Save Us Non-Profit Organization.[20]
  • Louis Mercier, Haitian educator (born May 5, 1893 in Cap-Haïtien)
  • Alfred Auguste Nemours, military historian and diplomat
  • Philomé Obin, artist
  • Mathias Pierre, entrepreneur
  • Leonel Saint-Preux, footballer
  • Ulrick Pierre-Louis, founder of orchestre Septentrional

Gallery[edit]

  • Front view of Sans-Souci Palace

  • Hotel de Ville (City Hall), site of the City Council, Cap-Haïtien.

  • A cruise ship at Labadie.

Television[edit]

  • Télé Vénus Ch 5
  • Télé Paradis Ch 16[21]
  • Chaîne 6
  • Chaîne 7
  • Chaîne 11
  • Télé Capoise Ch 8
  • Télé Africa Ch 12[22]
  • HMTV Ch 20
  • Télé Union Ch 22
  • Télé Apocalypse Ch 24
  • Télévision Nationale d'Haiti Ch 4[23]

Media[edit]

  • Radyo Atlantik, 92.5 FM [24]
  • Radio 4VEH (4VEF), 840 AM [25]
  • Radio 4VEH, 94.7 FM [26]
  • Radio 7 FM, 92.7 [27]
  • Radio Cap-Haïtien
  • Radio Citadelle 91.1 FM
  • Radio Étincelle
  • Radio Gamma, 99.7 (based in Fort-Liberté) [28]
  • Radio Lumière, 98.1 FM [29]
  • Radio Méga,103.7 FM
  • Radio Sans-Souci FM, 106.9
  • Radio VASCO, 93.7 FM [30]
  • Radio Vénus FM 104.3 FM
  • Sans Souci FM, 106.9 [31]
  • Voix de l'Ave Maria 98.5 FM
  • Voix du Nord 90.3 FM
  • Radio Intermix 93.1 FM: La Reference Radio en Haïti - www.radiointermix.com
  • Radio Paradis [32]
  • Radio Nirvana, 97.3 FM [33]
  • Radio Hispaniola
  • Radio Maxima, 98.1.FM [34]
  • Radio Voix de l'ile 94.5 FM [35]
  • Radio Digital 101.3 FM [36]
  • Radio Oxygene 103.3 FM [37]
  • Radio Passion 101.7 FM Haïti [38]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d'Informatique (IHSI)
  2. ^Sister Cities InternationalArchived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^"Portland's Sister Cities - Portland, ME". portlandmaine.gov. 
  4. ^Clammer, Paul (ed.). "Haiti". p. 177. ISBN 9781841624150. Retrieved 16 July 2017. 
  5. ^ abKnight, Franklin W.; Liss, Peggy K. (1991). Atlantic Port Cities: Economy, Culture, and Society in the Atlantic World, 1650–1850. p. 91. 
  6. ^King, Stewart R. (2001). Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre‑revolutionary Saint Domingue. p. 23. 
  7. ^Kuss, Malena (2007). Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Encyclopedic History. p. 254. 
  8. ^Clammer, Paul; Grosberg, Michael; Porup, Jens (2008). Dominican Republic & Haiti. Country Guide Series. Lonely Planet. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-74104-292-4. 
  9. ^Mackenzie, Charles (1830). Notes on Haiti: Made During a Residence in that Republic. 1. p. 152. 
  10. ^Florida Museum of Natural History, Puerto Real.
  11. ^"Labadie". Expedia.com. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  12. ^"Labadie". The Washington Post. 2007-01-21. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  13. ^Cameron, p. 406
  14. ^"Citadelle Laferrière", UNESCO World Heritage Sites
  15. ^Cameron, p. 409
  16. ^Prepetit, Claude (9 October 2008), "Tremblements de terre en Haïti, mythe ou réalité ?"(PDF), Le Matin, N° 33082 [permanent dead link], quoting Moreau de Saint-Méry, Médéric Louis Élie, Description topographique, physique, civile, politique et historique de la partie française de l'Ile Saint Domingue  and J. M. Jan, bishop of Cap-Haïtien (1972), Documentation religieuse, Éditions Henri Deschamps . "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-21. Retrieved 2011-09-28. 
  17. ^http://earthquakes.findthedata.org/detail/1675/Haiti-Cap-haitien
  18. ^Thompson, Ginger; Cave, Damien. "Officials Strain to Distribute Aid to Haiti as Violence Rises - NYTimes.com". 
  19. ^"Haiti renames airport for Hugo Chavez". The Big Story. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  20. ^Help Us Save Us
  21. ^"Radio Tele Pardadis". www.radioteleparadis.com. 
  22. ^http://www.radioteleafrica.com/
  23. ^Index of /Archived February 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^"HugeDomains.com - AtLanTikHaiti.com is for sale (At Lan Tik Haiti)". www.atlantikhaiti.com. 
  25. ^"Radio 4VEH - La Voix Évangélique d'Haïti". www.radio4veh.org. 
  26. ^"Radio 4VEH - La Voix Évangélique d'Haïti". www.radio4veh.org. 
  27. ^"Tele7 - Portada". www.tele7.com. 
  28. ^Radio Gamma fm, 99.7 Mhz - BienvenueArchived December 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^"Radio Lumiere - Home". www.radiolumiere.org. 
  30. ^"Radio Vasco". 
  31. ^Sans Souci FMArchived 2008-06-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^"Radio Tele Pardadis". www.radioteleparadis.com. 
  33. ^"Welcome radionirvanafm.com - BlueHost.com". www.radionirvanafm.com. 
  34. ^[1]Archived January 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^[2]Archived January 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^Noel, Jackendy R. "Radio Tele Digital 101.3 FM Haiti, Musique, Actualites, Interview, Infos, Foot-ball, Education, Culture". radioteledigital.fr.ht. 
  37. ^[3]Archived January 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^"Radio Passion Haiti :: Sport Haiti, Actualités Haiti, Économie Haiti, Santé Haiti, Météo Haiti, Politique Haiti, Culture Haiti". 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

The well-preserved Cathedral Notre-Dame of Cap‑Haïtien.
A street scene in Cap‑Haïtien
French colonial architecture in Cap
Labadie beach and village
Water taxis parked at Labadie beach
A view of the beach at Paradis
Le Paradis S. Hotel Cap‑Haïtien

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *